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The area that is now NuLu was originally part of a 1,acre 4. William Preston for his service during the French and Indian War. In , the area was annexed by the city of Louisville under the name of "Uptown".
Around , Market Street's eastern terminus was occupied by the Woodland Gardens, a green oasis of amusement and entertainment in the growing city that became a favorite gathering spot with German immigrants.
The gardens themselves gave way to the Bourbon Stockyards when it closed in , which helped fuel early growth of meat purveyors, tanners and other industries associated with the livestock trade, including the establishment of five Market Houses that populated the street.
Two of these could be found in today's East Market District: From the early s until the early s, ten buildings on the block of East Market area were owned by Wayside Christian Mission and used as the main housing campus for homeless women and families men are still housed at a location on Jefferson Street.
Eventually businesses in the area, led by antiques dealer Joe Ley, put pressure on the homeless shelter by opening a hearing process for Wayside's buildings to be added to the historic register, forcing Wayside to halt necessary renovations to its buildings.
After months of stalled construction, Wayside Christian Mission sold its Market Street property and moved to a new location at 2nd and Broadway.
Investors bought the ten properties for renovation, and hearings to add the buildings some built as recently as the s to the historic register were called off.
The Haymarket area, which occupied most of the blocks around Jefferson, Market, Floyd and Preston streets, had a long and ethnically rich history, says University of Louisville archivist Dr.
The original Haymarket buildings were demolished in the late s as part of an urban renewal initiative, but a new Haymarket was constructed in the s and expanded several times over the next two decades.
The creator of New York City's Central Park and father of Louisville's original parks system, Frederick Law Olmsted , designed two parks that replaced the original Market Houses, with the mini-parks themselves later replaced by traffic lanes.
Designated in as part of the Phoenix Hill National Register Historic District , the area has a rich blend of architectural styles, ranging from pre- Civil War federal style town-homes and shotgun houses , to Italianate and Victorian residential and commercial structures, as well as large pre and turn of the 20th century buildings built to house Louisville's thriving businesses during the boom following the Civil War.
Many of these buildings are today home to the many galleries, shops, restaurants and residents in the district.
This includes Louisville's first commercial building seeking national LEED platinum certification as a green structure, known as The Green Building , located in a year-old former dry goods store.
It was originally built in by Sternau's Dry Goods and was used as a dry goods store until it closed in It has since been used as a Goodwill Thrift Store — and a photography warehouse — Holland coined the term NuLu.
Galleries, museums and other businesses in the East Market District as well as the West Main District are prominently featured during the monthly First Friday Hop, where free buses circle the downtown area with stops at most galleries and museums along its route.
The NuLu East Market Festival is an annual event designed to showcase what the neighborhood and city of Louisville have to offer.
Originally held September 26, , the festival featured local vendors, food booths, beer and wine sales and a musical lineup featuring Ben Sollee.
Market Street often played host to Academy Award winning pioneer movie director, D. Griffith , a native of nearby Oldham County, Kentucky , whose family had moved to Louisville where D.
Meffert, whose family had lived and worked in the block of East Market Street from the s through the s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Opponents of General Augusto Pinochet voted NO to remove him from power and to trigger democratic elections, while supporters mostly from the right-wing voted YES to keep him in office for another eight years.
Five months prior to the plebiscite, the regime published a law regulating future elections and referendums, but the configuration of electoral districts and the manner in which Congress seats would be awarded were only added to the law seven months after the referendum.
For the Chamber of Deputies lower house , 60 districts were drawn by grouping mostly neighboring communes the smallest administrative subdivision in the country within the same region the largest.
It was established that two deputies would be elected per district, with the most voted coalition needing to outpoll its closest rival by a margin of more than 2-to-1 to take both seats.
The results of the plebiscite show that neither the "NO" side nor the "YES" side outpolled the other by said margin in any of the newly established districts.
Senate constituencies were created by grouping all lower-chamber districts in a region, or by dividing a region into two constituencies of contiguous lower-chamber districts.
The Constitution allocated a number of seats to appointed senators, making it harder for one side to change the Constitution by itself. The unelected senators were eliminated in the constitutional reforms, but the electoral map has remained largely untouched two new regions were created in , one of which altered the composition of two senatorial constituencies; the first election to be affected by this minor change took place in France is one of the few countries to let legislatures redraw the map with no check.
Districts called arrondissements were used in the Third Republic and under the Fifth Republic they are called circonscriptions. During the Third Republic, some reforms of arrondissements, which were also used for administrative purposes, were largely suspected to have been arranged to favour the kingmaker in the Assembly, the Parti radical.
In the modern regime, there were three designs: In , the Sarkozy government created 12 districts for expats. The Constitutional council was called twice by the opposition to decide about gerrymandering, but it never considered partisan disproportions.
Gerrymandering in France is also done against regionalist parties. After having won four seats in Berlin in the national election, the PDS was able to retain only two seats altogether in the elections.
Under German electoral law, a political party has to win either more than five percent of the votes, or at least three directly elected seats, to qualify for top-up seats under the Additional Member System.
The PDS vote fell below five percent thus they failed to qualify for top-up seats and were confined to just two members of the Bundestag , the German federal parliament elected representatives are always allowed to hold their seats as individuals.
Had they won a third constituency, the PDS would have gained at least 25 additional seats, which would have been enough to hold the balance of power in the Bundestag.
However, when a party wins so many districts in any one of the 16 federal states that those seats alone count for more than its proportional share of the vote in that same state does the districting have some influence on larger parties—those extra seats, called " Überhangmandate ", remain.
In , Germany's Supreme Court ruled on the constitutionality of Überhangmandate, which from then on have to be added in proportion to the second vote of each party thereby making it impossible that one party can have more seats than earned by the proportionate votes in the election.
Gerrymandering has been rather common in Greek history since organised parties with national ballots only appeared after the Constitution.
The most infamous case of gerrymandering [ citation needed ] was in the election. In small districts the winning party would take all seats, in intermediate size it would take most and there was proportional representation in the largest districts.
The districts were created in such a way that small districts were those that traditionally voted for the right while large districts were those that voted against the right.
The opposition, being composed of the center and the left, formed a coalition with the sole intent of changing the electoral law and then calling new elections, despite the fact that only seven years earlier the center and the left had fought each other in the Greek Civil War.
Even though the centrist and leftist opposition won the popular vote 1,, votes against 1,, , the right wing ERE won the majority of seats to and was to lead the country for the next two years.
In Hong Kong , functional constituencies are demarcated by the government and defined in statutes,  making them prone to gerrymandering.
The functional constituency for the information technology sector was particular criticised for gerrymandering and voteplanting.
There are also gerrymandering concerns in the constituencies of district councils. Successive arrangements by governments of all political characters have been attacked as gerrymandering.
Ireland uses the single transferable vote and as well as the actual boundaries drawn the main tool of gerrymandering has been the number of seats per constituency used, with three-seat constituencies normally benefiting the strongest parties in an area, whereas four-seat constituencies normally help smaller parties.
The result was described by the journalist and historian Tim Pat Coogan as "a blatant attempt at gerrymander which no Six County Unionist could have bettered.
In the mids, the Minister for Local Government, James Tully , attempted to arrange the constituencies to ensure that the governing Fine Gael — Labour Party National Coalition would win a parliamentary majority.
In areas where the governing parties were weak, four-seat constituencies were used so that the governing parties had a strong chance of still winning two.
The election results created substantial change, as there was a larger than expected collapse in the vote.
Consequently, the term " Tullymandering " was used to describe the phenomenon of a failed attempt at gerrymandering. From the years until , Kuwait was divided into 25 electoral districts in order to over-represent the government's supporters the 'tribes'.
The government of Kuwait found that 5 electoral districts resulted in a powerful parliament with the majority representing the opposition. A new law was crafted by the government of Kuwait and signed by the Amir to gerrymander the districts to 10 allowing the government's supporters to regain the majority.
The practice of gerrymandering has been around in the country since its independence in The Labour Party that won in , even though the Nationalist Party got the most votes, did so because of its gerrymandering.
A constitutional amendment prevented that situation from reoccurring. After the restoration of democracy in , Nepali politics has well exercised the practice of gerrymandering with the view to take advantage in the election.
It was often practised by Nepali Congress , which remained in power in most of the time. Learning from this, the reshaping of constituency was done for constituent assembly and the opposition now wins elections.
Congressional districts in the Philippines were originally based on an ordinance from the Constitution , which was created by the Constitutional Commission, which was ultimately based on legislative districts as they were drawn in The same constitution gave Congress of the Philippines the power to legislate new districts, either through a national redistricting bill or piecemeal redistricting per province or city.
Congress has never passed a national redistricting bill since the approval of the constitution, while it has incrementally created 34 new districts, out of the originally created in This allows Congress to create new districts once a place reaches , inhabitants, the minimum required for its creation.
With this, local dynasties, through congressmen, can exert influence in the district-making process by creating bills carving new districts from old ones.
In time, as the population of the Philippines increases, these districts, or groups of it, will be the basis of carving new provinces out of existing ones.
An example was in Camarines Sur , where two districts were divided into three districts which allegedly favors the Andaya and the Arroyo families; it caused Rolando Andaya and Dato Arroyo , who would have otherwise run against each other, run in separate districts, with one district allegedly not even surpassing the ,population minimum.
In recent decades, critics have accused the ruling People's Action Party PAP of unfair electoral practices to maintain significant majorities in the Parliament of Singapore.
Among the complaints are that the government uses gerrymandering. Members of opposition parties claim that the Group Representation Constituency system is "synonymous to gerrymandering", pointing out examples of Cheng San GRC and Eunos GRC which were dissolved by the Elections Department with voters redistributed to other constituencies after opposition parties gained ground in elections.
Until the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic in , Spain used both single-member and multi-member constituencies in general elections.
Multi-member constituencies were only used in some big cities. These districts were created in order to prevent the Federal Democratic Republican Party to win a seat in Figueres or La Bisbal and to secure a seat to the dynastic parties.
Since , the constituency boundaries match the province boundaries. After the Francoist dictatorship , during the transition to democracy , these fixed provincial constituencies were reestablished in Section There are not winner-takes-all elections in Spain except for the tiny territories of Ceuta and Melilla which only have one representative each ; everywhere else the number of representatives assigned to a constituency is proportional to its population and calculated according to a national law, so tampering with under- or over-representation is difficult too.
European , regional and municipal elections are held under single, at-large multi-member constituencies with proportional representation and gerrymandering is not possible either.
Sri Lanka's new Local Government elections process has been the talking point of gerrymandering since its inception.
In the most recent election of , there were numerous examples of gerrymandering throughout the entire country of Sudan. A report from the Rift Valley Institute uncovered violations of Sudan's electoral law, where constituencies were created that were well below and above the required limit.
The Rift Valley Report uncovered a number of constituencies that are in violation of this rule. Examples include constituencies in Jonglei, Warrap, South Darfur, and several other states.
Large low income boroughs are bundled with rich boroughs to win municipal elections. Claonroinnt is widely considered to have been introduced after the establishment of Home Rule in Northern Ireland in , favouring Unionists who tended to be Protestant, to the detriment of Nationalists who were mostly Catholic.
This passed also into local government. Stephen Gwynn had noted as early as that since the introduction of the Local Government Ireland Act In Armagh there are 68, Protestants, 56, Catholics.
The County Council has twenty-two Protestants and eight Catholics. In Tyrone , Catholics are a majority of the population, 82, against 68,; but the electoral districts have been so arranged that Unionists return sixteen as against thirteen Nationalists one a Protestant.
This Council gives to the Unionists two to one majority on its Committees, and out of fifty-two officials employs only five Catholics.
In Antrim , which has the largest Protestant majority , to 40, , twenty-six Unionists and three Catholics are returned.
Sixty officers out of sixty-five are good Unionists and Protestants. In the s and s, the Ulster Unionist Party created new electoral boundaries for the Londonderry County Borough Council to ensure election of a Unionist council in a city where Nationalists had a large majority and had won previous elections.
From the outset, Northern Ireland had installed the single transferable vote STV system in order to secure fair elections in terms of proportional representation in its Parliament.
After two elections under that system, in Stormont changed the electoral system to be the same as the rest of the United Kingdom: Some scholars believe that the boundaries were gerrymandered to under-represent Nationalists.
Most observers have acknowledged that the change to a single-winner system was a key factor, however, in stifling the growth of smaller political parties, such as the Northern Ireland Labour Party and Independent Unionists.
After Westminster reintroduced direct rule in , it restored the single transferable vote STV for elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly in the following year, using the same definitions of constituencies as for the Westminster Parliament.
Currently in Northern Ireland, all elections use STV except those for positions in the Westminster Parliament , which follow the pattern in the rest of the United Kingdom by using "first past the post.
The number of electors in a United Kingdom constituency can vary considerably, with the smallest constituency currently electoral register having fewer than a fifth of the electors of the largest Scotland's Na h-Eileanan an Iar 21, constituents and Orkney and Shetland 34, , compared to England's North West Cambridgeshire 93, and Isle of Wight , This variation has resulted from:.
Under the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies , the Coalition government planned to review and redraw the parliamentary constituency boundaries for the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.
The review and redistricting was to be carried out by the four UK boundary commissions to produce a reduction from to seats, and more uniform sizes, such that a constituency was to have no fewer than 70, and no more than 80, electors.
The process was intended to address historic malapportionment , and be complete by An opposition Labour motion to suspend the review until after the next general election was tabled in the House of Lords and a vote called in the United Kingdom House of Commons , in January The motion was passed with the help of the Liberal Democrats, going back on an election pledge.
As of October , a new review is in progress and a draft of the new boundaries has been published. The United States, among the first with an elected representative government, eventually named the practice.
Incidents precede the election of the First U. They drew the boundaries of Virginia's 5th congressional district in an unsuccessful attempt to keep James Madison out of the U.
The practice of gerrymandering the borders of new states continued past the Civil War and into the late 19th century.
The Republican Party used its control of Congress to secure the admission of more states in territories friendly to their party—the admission of Dakota Territory as two states instead of one being a notable example.
By the rules for representation in the Electoral College , each new state carried at least three electoral votes regardless of its population.
All redistricting in the United States has been contentious because it has been controlled by political parties vying for power.
As a consequence of the decennial census required by the United States Constitution , districts for members of the House of Representatives typically need to be redrawn.
In many states, state legislatures have redrawn boundaries for state legislative districts at the same time. State legislatures have used gerrymandering along racial lines both to decrease and increase minority representation in state governments and congressional delegations.
In the state of Ohio, a conversation between Republican officials was recorded that demonstrated that redistricting was being done to aid their political candidates.
Furthermore, the discussions assessed race of voters as a factor in redistricting, because African-Americans had backed Democratic candidates.
Republicans apparently removed approximately 13, African American voters from the district of Jim Raussen , a Republican candidate for the House of Representatives, in an attempt to tip the scales in what was once a competitive district for Democratic candidates.
With the Civil Rights Movement and passage of the Voting Rights Act of , federal enforcement and protections of suffrage for all citizens were enacted.
Gerrymandering for the purpose of reducing the political influence of a racial or ethnic minority group was prohibited. After the Voting Rights Act of was passed, some states created "majority-minority" districts to enhance minority voting strength.
This practice, also called "affirmative gerrymandering", was supposed to redress historic discrimination and ensure that ethnic minorities would gain some seats and representation in government.
In some states, bipartisan gerrymandering is the norm. State legislators from both parties sometimes agree to draw congressional district boundaries in a way that ensures the re-election of most or all incumbent representatives from both parties.
Rather than allowing more political influence, some states have shifted redistricting authority from politicians and given it to non-partisan redistricting commissions.
The states of Washington,  Arizona,  and California  have created standing committees for redistricting following the census.
It has been argued however that in California's case, gerrymandering still continued despite this change. Florida's amendments 5 and 6, meanwhile, established rules for the creation of districts but did not mandate an independent commission.
International election observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, who were invited to observe and report on the national elections , expressed criticism of the U.
In , an analyst reported that the two major parties differ in the way they redraw districts. The Democrats construct coalition districts of liberals and minorities together with conservatives which results in Democratic-leaning districts.
Prior to the 26 September legislative elections , gerrymandering took place via an addendum to the electoral law by the National Assembly of Venezuela.
In a play on words , the use of race-conscious procedures in jury selection has been termed "jurymandering".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jerrymander may also refer to the arachnid known as Solifugae. For the documentary film, see Gerrymandering film.
For the author with a similar name, see Jerry Mander. For the ship "Gerrymander", see Fair Wind to Java.
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Compactness measure of a shape and Polsby-Popper Test. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of Malaysian electoral districts. Gerrymandering in the United States. The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations.
The Rise and Development of the Gerrymander. Scott, Foresman and Co. Detailed biographies and academic journal articles about Stuart make no reference to gerrymandering.
The myth of Stuart's association with the original gerrymander has been reproduced and spread without verification or sources, from one reference book and Internet site to another.
Modern scholars of Stuart agree that no proof exists to credit him with the term or cartoon and that he tended not to be involved with such issues.
Designer, Engraver and Miniature Painter". Original woodblocks for printing "Gerrymander" political cartoon.
Geography and Map Reading Room. The first usage outside of the immediate Boston area appeared in the Newburyport Herald Massachusetts on 31 March, and the first use outside of Massachusetts came in the Concord Gazette New Hampshire on 14 April What may be the first use of the term to describe the redistricting in another state Maryland occurred in the Federal Republican Georgetown, D.
All in all, there are at least 80 known citations of the word from March through December in American newspapers.
Archived from the original on 9 May Showdown in Texas—reasons and implications for the House, and Hispanic vote". Kildare Street to Fleet Street".
Retrieved 15 November — via Google Books. Partisan Gerrymandering and Judicial Regulation of Politics". The Supreme Court takes up partisan gerrymandering".
Retrieved July 28, University of Chicago Law Review. Masket, Jonathan Winburn and Gerald C. Wright, The Gerrymanderers Are Coming! American Journal of Political Science.
The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 5 August Org, 14 December The New York Times Editorial.
Retrieved 5 March Engstrom, The Single Transferable Vote: Mulroy, Alternative Ways Out: Mulroy, The Way Out: Alabama Redistricting Summary Dept.
Retrieved 6 April Archived 24 June at the Wayback Machine. Sims states that "a state legislative apportionment scheme may properly give representation to various political subdivisions and provide for compact districts of contiguous territory if substantial equality among districts is maintained.
Fixing It Is Harder". Help from the Isoperimetric Theorem? Retrieved 19 December Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 3 September Official Website of the Knesset.
Retrieved 8 October Essays on the History of South Australia, — Association of Professional Historians. Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 2 July Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 29 March Evidence from Hong Kong".
British Journal of Political Science. Retrieved 18 November Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Retrieved 23 December Due to the gerrymandering on the part of the government, the "tribes" from the s onwards, came to occupy a significant number of seats in the National Assembly.
Retrieved 9 November Ong, Kiang Ming MP Retrieved 30 July Analysts", August 3, Retrieved 8 August Culla, Joan; Mir, Conxita Les eleccions generals a Catalunya de a PDF.
Retrieved 16 January The Case for Home Rule pp. John Whyte, 'How much discrimination was there under the Unionist regime, —?
Retrieved 14 February Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 8 December Gerrymander districts to favor Democrats".
Retrieved 20 February Gerrymander districts to favor Republicans". Retrieved November 28, Retrieved February 16, Corporate crime Corruption in local government Interest group corruption Police corruption Political corruption.
Retrieved from " https: Constituencies Gerrymandering Electoral geography Ethically disputed political practices Political corruption Political terminology of the United States Voter suppression Electoral fraud.
Part of the Politics series. Elections by country Close elections Most recent Next general elections. North Carolina's 12th congressional district between and was an example of packing.
The district has predominantly African-American residents who vote for Democrats. California's 23rd congressional district was an example of packing confined to a narrow strip of coast drawn from three large counties.
The district shown was radically redrawn by California's non-partisan commission after the census. California's 11th congressional district featured long, strained projections and counter-projections of other districts, achieving mild but reliable packing.
The district comprised a selection of people and communities favourable to the Republican Party. It was redrawn from the version shown after the census.
Bi-partisan incumbent gerrymandering produced California's 38th congressional district , home to Grace Napolitano , a Democrat , who ran unopposed in This district was redrawn by California's non-partisan commission after the census.
Texas' controversial partisan gerrymander produced Texas District 22 for former Rep.